Senin, 28 Desember 2009

Selena Gomez

Selena Gomez

Selena Gomez

Selena Gomez attending "The 6th Annual Hollywood Style Awards" in Beverly Hills, California on October 10, 2009.
Background information
Birth name Selena Marie Gomez
Born July 22, 1992 (1992-07-22) (age 17)
Grand Prairie, Texas,
United States
Genres Pop, dance, rock, alternative
Occupations Actress, singer, songwriter
Years active 2002–present
Labels Hollywood Records (2008-pesent)
Associated acts Selena Gomez & the Scene, Forever The Sickest Kids, Demi Lovato, Drew Seeley
Website Offical Website[1]

Selena Marie Gomez (born July 22, 1992)[2] is an American actress and singer best known for her portrayal of Alex Russo on the Emmy Award winning Disney Channel Original Series, Wizards of Waverly Place. She has starred in the television movies, Another Cinderella Story and Princess Protection Program.

Before Disney, she had one of the kid roles on Barney & Friends. In 2008, she signed a record deal with Hollywood Records and contributed to the Tinker Bell, Another Cinderella Story and Wizards of Waverly Place soundtracks. Her band, Selena Gomez & the Scene, released their debut studio album Kiss & Tell on September 29, 2009.[3]

Early life

Gomez was born in Grand Prairie, Texas[2] to Ricardo Gomez and Mandy Teefy (née Cornett), a former stage actress who was 16 when she gave birth to Gomez.[4][5] Gomez is an only child.[4] Gomez' birth parents divorced when she was five years old, in 1997.[6] Her mother Mandy remarried in 2006 to Brian Teefy.[7] Gomez was named after Tejano singer Selena.[8] Her father is Mexican and her mother is of Italian descent.[9][10] Gomez stated that when she was a child she'd developed an interest in acting from watching her mother perform in theater productions. "My mom [Mandy] did a lot of theater, and I would watch her rehearse. When she got ready for the show and put on her makeup, I would sit behind her and color. She said, 'You have my lines memorized better than I do!' [...] One day I said [to her], "I want to be like you!."[6]



Gomez on the studio set of Wizards of Waverly Place before filming an episode for the show's first season in April, 2007.

Gomez began her acting career at age seven, playing Gianna on Barney & Friends. She said that she learned "everything" about how to act while on the show. Season 7 of Barney & Friends, when Selena Gomez was on the show, was held up for some time. Because of this, the episodes featuring Gomez did not air until she was in 5th grade. This resulted in some mild controversy/confusion as to whether she was on Barney in the 5th grade or the 1st grade.[11] She later had minor roles in Spy Kids 3-D: Game Over and the TV film Walker, Texas Ranger: Trial By Fire. In 2004, Gomez was discovered by the Disney Channel in a nation wide scouting.[12] Gomez appeared as a guest star on The Suite Life of Zack & Cody and had a guest appearance - that later turned into a recurring role on - Hannah Montana from season's two to three. In early 2007 Gomez was cast in the Disney Channel series Wizards of Waverly Place as one of the three main characters, Alex Russo.

In 2008, Gomez appeared in Another Cinderella Story, the direct-to-DVD sequel to the 2004 Hilary Duff film, opposite Drew Seeley. She also had a minor voiceover role as one the Mayor's ninety-six daughters in Horton Hears a Who! which released in March of that year. In April, Lacey Rose, of Forbes ranked Gomez as being fifth on their "Eight Hot Kid Stars To Watch" list; and Rose described Gomez as having been "a multitalented teen".[13] In June, 2009, Gomez appeared in the made-for-television Disney Channel movie, Princess Protection Program with her best friend Demi Lovato.[14] On August 28, one month after appearing in Princess Protection Program, Gomez appeared in Wizards of Waverly Place: The Movie, a made-for-television film based on the show.[15]

In 2009, Gomez did a guest appearance as herself in one episode, of Lovato's Disney Channel television show Sonny With a Chance, entitled "Battle of The Network Stars". Gomez, along with two cast members of Wizards of Waverly Place appeared in a television three-way cross-over episode with Hannah Montana and The Suite Life on Deck, entitled Wizards on Deck with Hannah Montana. In February 2009, Gomez signed on to star as one of the two female leads in Ramona and Beezus a film adaption of the children's novel series by Beverly Cleary.[16][17]. In October, 2009, it was confirmed that Gomez was to attached star as the lead in What Boys Want.[18]


In 2008, Gomez recorded a cover of "Cruella de Vil" -which included a music video for - for the compilation album DisneyMania 6. Gomez recorded three songs for the Another Cinderella Story soundtrack, which Gomez appears in. Gomez also recorded "Fly to Your Heart" for the 2008 animated film Tinker Bell. In July 2008 - before Gomez' sixteenth birthday, she signed a recording deal with Hollywood Records, a music label owned by Disney.[19] In 2008, Gomez appeared in the Jonas Brothers music video for "Burnin' Up". In 2009, Gomez recorded "One and the Same" for Princess Protection Program as a duet with Lovato - they both appear in the film.[20] Gomez recorded four songs, one of which was a cover, for the Wizards of Waverly Place soundtrack, only one single (Magic) from the album was released. In May, of the same year, Gomez was featured - with Forever the Sickest Kids, on a duet version of the non-album song "Whoa Oh!".[21]

Selena Gomez & the Scene

Selena Gomez & the Scene
Origin U.S.
Genres Alternative
Years active 2008-present
Labels Hollywood Records
Selena Gomez
Greg Garman
Joey Clement
Ethan Robert
Dane Forrest

Selena Gomez & the Scene (often stylized as Selena Gomez ♥ the Scene) is an American Pop rock band that formed in 2008. The band consists of Gomez on vocals, Ethan Robert on guitar, Joey Clement on bass, Greg Garman on drums, and Dane Forrest on Keyboards.

During an interview with Jocelyn Vena, of MTV in August 2008, she said of her future music career that: "I'm going to be in a band — no Selena Gomez stuff. I'm not going to be a solo artist. I think that I don't want my name attached to it. I will be singing, and I'm learning drums and playing electric guitar.[22] Gomez along with her band, Selena Gomez & The Scene released their debut studio album, Kiss & Tell on September 29, 2009. The album debuted at number nine on the Billboard 200[23] with the sales of over 66,000 copies in its first week of release.[24] The album's first single, "Falling Down" was released on August 21, 2009,[3] and the song's music video was premiered after the world premiere of Gomez' TV-movie Wizards of Waverly Place: The Movie on August 28, 2009. Gomez stated, via her Twitter that the band was currently preparing to release their second single, Naturally.[25][26] The music video was shot on November 14, 2009 and premiered on Disney Channel following the premiere of Phineas and Ferb Christmas Vacation on December 11, 2009. Gomez confirmed that she co-wrote one song on the album,[27] titled "I Won't Apologize."[28] They are currently doing their House of Blues 2010 Tour.


Gomez was involved in the UR Votes Count campaign which helped encourage teenagers learn more about their 2008 Presidential candidates (Barack Obama and John McCain).[29] In October 2008, Gomez was named a spokesperson for UNICEF's 2008 Trick-or-Treat campaign, which encouraged children to raise money on Halloween to help children around the world.[30] She said that she was "extremely excited" to "encourage other kids to make a difference in the world."[30] In October 2008, Gomez participated in St. Jude's Children's Hospital "Runway For Life" benefit.[31] Gomez is a spokesperson for Borden Milk; she is featured in the campaign's print and television ads.[32] She is the ambassador of after being involved with the charity Island Dog, which help dogs in Puerto Rico.[33] She got involved while filming Wizards of Waverly Place: The Movie in Puerto Rico.[34] Gomez is a spokesperson for State Farm Insurance, and is featured in their TV commercials; which air on the Disney Channel, to raise awareness of being a safe driver.[35] Gomez is also involved with the charity RAISE Hope For Congo, the charity helps raise awareness about the violence against Congolese women, in the Congo..[36]

Gomez at the Young Vogue Hollywood Party in 2008.

In August, 2009, Gomez was named and currently, at the age of 17, is the youngest UNICEF ambassador. In her first official field mission, Gomez traveled to Ghana on September 4, 2009 for a week to witness first-hand the stark conditions of vulnerable children that lack vital necessities including clean water, nourishment, education and healthcare.[37][38] Gomez said during a interview with Associated Press that she wanted to use her star power to bring awareness to Ghana: “That’s why I feel very honored to have a voice that kids listen to and take into consideration [...] I had people on my tour asking me where IS Ghana, and they Googled it […] and because I went there, they now know where Ghana is. So it’s pretty incredible.”[38][39] Gomez said of her role as ambassador that: "Every day 25,000 children die from preventable causes. I stand with UNICEF in the belief that we can change that number from 25,000 to zero. I know we can achieve this because every moment, UNICEF is on the ground providing children with the lifesaving assistance needed to ensure zero becomes a reality."[37]

Gomez is involved in Disney's Friends for Change, an organization which promotes "environmently-friendly behavior", and appears in its public service announcements to raise awareness for the cause on the Disney Channel.[40] Gomez, Demi Lovato, Miley Cyrus, and the Jonas Brothers recorded "Send It On", a charity single which serves as the theme song for Disney's Friends for Change. The song debuted on the Hot 100 at number twenty.[41][42] Disney's Friends For Change will direct all of its proceeds from "Send it On" to environmental charities to the Disney Worldwide Conservation Fund.[41] Gomez was named spokesperson for UNICEF's 2009 Trick-or-Treat campaign, for the second year in a row, which encouraged children to raise money on Halloween to help children around the world.[43] Gomez, whom raised over 700,000 for the charity in 2008, stated that she hopes to be able to raise 1 million dollars, a 300,000 increase from the previous year, In 2009.[38] Gomez participated in a celebrity auction in support of the Trick-or-Treat for UNICEF campaign.[44] As part of the auction, Gomez donated 4 VIP tickets to a concert - of the bidders choice - with a backstage meet and greet and signed CD of her album Kiss and Tell.[44] On October 29, 2009, two days before Halloween, Gomez will take part in a live web cast series hosted on Facebook, and will speak to viewers about and taking part in Trick-or-Treat for UNICEF.[45] On October 6, 2009, Gomez made a surprise visit to a Los Angeles elementary school as part of the "A Day Made Better" program that was sponsored by OfficeMax.[46] During her visit, Gomez gave the school an award, and gave them $1,000 worth of school supplies. Gomez spent the day with the students and talked about the importance of giving back to the community.[46][47]


Gomez on the set of her music video for "Tell Me Something I Don't Know" in July 2008

As of September, 2009, Gomez currently is the new face of Sears back-to-school fashion ad campaign.[48] As part of the endorsement deal Gomez is featured in their television commercials and recorded "Dont Just Go Back Arrive". In August, 2009, Gomez also hosted the "Sears Arrive Air Band Casting Call" – to select five people for the first-ever "Sears Air Band", which performed at the 2009 MTV Video Music Awards on September 13, 2009.[49]

In October 2008, Gomez launched her own production company, July Moon Productions, and partnered with XYZ Films (Xamien Your Zipper) to create star vehicles for Gomez. As part of the agreement Gomez will have the opportunity to be able option articles, hire writers and create talent packages to shop to studios.[50][51] Also, as part of the deal, "XYZ Films will allow Gomez to star in and produce at least two films.[46] Variety reported that: "In August, XYZ [Films] inked a similar deal with Time Inc. and management-production company the Collective to finance the development of the print media giant's content for the bigscreen [...] As part of the July Moon-XYZ deal, [Selena] Gomez will have the ability to cherry-pick projects from the vast Time Inc. library, which includes Time, Sports Illustrated, Fortune and Life."[51]

In October, 2009, Gomez announced her plan to launch her own fashion line, called "Dream Out Loud by Selena Gomez", which is set to launch in fall 2010.[52][53] The clothing line will consist of and feature bohemian dresses, floral tops, jeans, skirts, jackets, scarves and hats, all made from recycled or eco-friendly materials.[54][55] Gomez said that the line will reflect her own personal style[56] and described the clothing as being "pretty, feminine, and bohemian," and: "With my line, I really want to give the customer options on how they can put their own looks together [...] I want the pieces that can be easy to dress up or down, and the fabrics being eco-friendly and organic is super important [...] Also, the tags will all have some of my inspirational quotes on them. I'm just looking to send a good message."[52][55] Gomez, who has no background in fashion, teamed up with designers Tony Melillo and Sandra Campos, both who have worked with big-name fashion houses.[53] Gomez said of the partnering: "When I met Tony and Sandra, I was instantly comfortable with them and now they are just like family to me [...] They are so creative and I love how I can just call them up whenever and talk to them about everything, even if it's just about changing a button [...] They've been so cool about everything."[52][53][54][55] The brand will be manufactured by, Melillo and Campos teamed with New York-based Adjmi Apparel and formed by Adjmi CH Brands LLC; which is the holding company for the brand.[57]

Personal life

Gomez is a Christian and began wearing a purity ring with "true love waits" engraved when she was 12 years old.[58] Gomez, who as of December, 2009, has five dogs, has described her self as being a "huge animal lover”.[59] Gomez is best friends with Demi Lovato - her co-star in Princess Protection Program and Barney and Friends, whom Gomez has been friends with since the two met at Barney and Friends audition. After the two posted a video blog on YouTube in March 2008, her other best friend Miley Cyrus and her friend Mandy Jiroux uploaded a parody of that video, which caught the interest of entertainment media. Reports included the theory that Gomez and Cyrus were arguing over Nick Jonas,[60] or that Gomez and Lovato might replace Cyrus.[61] On replacing Cyrus, Gomez clarified: "I'm not interested in being anybody but myself, and I'm not here to replace anyone. I think that she's a wonderful performer, and of course it's a compliment. But I would like to take a different route."[62]


Year Film Role Notes
2003 Spy Kids 3-D: Game Over Waterpark Girl Minor role
2005 Walker, Texas Ranger: Trial by Fire Julie
2006 Brain Zapped Emily Grace Garcia
2008 Horton Hears a Who! Mayor's Daughter Voiceover
Another Cinderella Story Mary Santiago Direct-to-DVD
2009 Princess Protection Program Carter Mason Disney Channel Original Movie
Wizards of Waverly Place: The Movie Alex Russo
Arthur and the Vengeance of Maltazard Princess Selenia Voice/Replacing Madonna
2010[63] Ramona and Beezus Beatrice "Beezus" Quimby Lead role
2011 What Boys Want -
Year Title Role Notes
2002-2003 Barney & Friends Gianna Recurring role
2007-present Wizards of Waverly Place Alex Russo Lead role
2008 Disney Channel Games Herself Participant
Guest appearances
Year Title Role Notes
2006 The Suite Life of Zack & Cody Gwen "A Midsummer's Nightmare" (Season 2, Episode 22)
2007 Hannah Montana Mikayla "I Want You to Want Me... to Go to Florida" (Season 2, Episode 13)
"That's What Friends Are For?" (Season 2, Episode 18)
2009 Sonny With a Chance Herself "Battle of the Networks' Stars" (Season 1, Episode 13)
The Suite Life on Deck Alex Russo "Double-Crossed" (Season 1, Episode 21)
Extreme Makeover Home Edition Herself Guest Star


Year Song Chart positions Album
2008 "Tell Me Something I Don't Know" 58 Another Cinderella Story
2009 "Magic" 61 86 Wizards of Waverly Place
With Selena Gomez and the Scene
2009 "Falling Down" 82 83 Kiss & Tell
"Winter Wonderland" All Wrapped Up Volume 2
"Naturally" 102 Kiss & Tell
As a featured artist
2009 "Whoa Oh!" (with Forever The Sickest Kids) non-album single
"One and the Same" (with Demi Lovato) 82 Disney Channel Playlist
"Send It On" (with Demi Lovato, Jonas Brothers, and Miley Cyrus) 20 non-album song
Year Song Album
2008 "Cruella de Vil" DisneyMania 6
"Tell Me Something I Don't Know" Another Cinderella Story
"New Classic" (featuring Drew Seeley)
"Bang a Drum"
"New Classic" (Live) (featuring Drew Seeley)
"Fly to Your Heart" Tinker Bell
2009 "One and the Same" (with Demi Lovato) Disney Channel Playlist
"Everything Is Not What It Seems" Wizards of Waverly Place
Music videos
Year Title Album
2008 "Cruella de Vil" DisneyMania 6
"Tell Me Something I Don't Know" Another Cinderella Story
"Fly To Your Heart" Tinker Bell
2009 "One and the Same" (with Demi Lovato) Disney Channel Playlist
"Magic" Wizards of Waverly Place
"Send It On" (with Miley Cyrus, Demi Lovato, and Jonas Brothers) non-album song
"Falling Down" Kiss & Tell


Year Award Category Work Outcome
2008 Alma Award[64] Outstanding Female Performance in a Comedy Television Series Wizards of Waverly Place Nominated
Imagen Awards[65] Best Actress - Television
2009 Image Awards[66] Outstanding Performance in a Youth/Children's Program - Series or Special
Nickelodeon Kids' Choice Awards[67] Favorite TV Actress Won
Young Artist Award[68] Best Performance in a TV Movie, Miniseries, or Special - Leading Young Actress Another Cinderella Story
Best Performance in a TV Series - Leading Young Actress Wizards of Waverly Place Nominated
Best Performance in a Voice-over Role Horton Hears a Who!
Teen Choice Awards[69] "Choice Summer- Celebrity Dancer" Another Cinderella Story Won
"Choice Summer - TV Star-Female" Princess Protection Program
"Choice Other Stuff - Red Carpet Icon: Female" Herself
Hollywood Style Award [70] Style Ingenue
Alma Award[71] Special Achievement Comedy - Television - Actress Wizards of Waverly Place
Imagen Awards[72] Best Actress - Television Nominated
Nickelodeon Australian Kids' Choice Awards[73] Fave International TV Star Herself

Lady GaGa - Eh Eh (Nothing Else I Can Say)

Cherry cherry
Boom boom

Boy we've had a real good time
And i wish you the best
On your way, eh eh

I didn't mean to hurt you
I never thought we'd fall
Out of place, eh eh

I have something that i love long long
But my friends keepa' tellin' me
That something's wrong
Then i met someone
And eh, there's nothing else i can say

Eh eh, eh eh
There's nothing else i can say
Eh eh, eh eh
I wish he never looked at me that way
Eh eh, eh eh
There's nothing else i can say
Eh eh, eh eh

Not that i don't care about you
Just that things got so compliqué
Eh eh

I met somebody cute and funny
Got each other and that's funny
Eh eh

I have something that i love long long
But my friends keepa' tellin' me
That something's wrong
Then i met someone
And eh, there's nothing else i can say

Eh eh, eh eh
There's nothing else i can say
Eh eh, eh eh
I wish he never looked at me that way
Eh eh, eh eh
There's nothing else i can say
Eh eh, eh eh

I have something that i love long long
But my friends keepa' tellin' me
That something's wrong
Then i met someone
And eh, there's nothing else i can say

Eh eh, eh eh
There's nothing else i can say
Eh eh, eh eh
I wish he never looked at me that way
Eh eh, eh eh
There's nothing else i can say
Eh eh, eh eh

Eh eh, cherry cherry, boom boom

Eh eh, eh eh
Oh, yeah
All i can say is eh eh

Senin, 21 Desember 2009

percumaa :'(

pertama masuk smp 1, cuma dia yang bisa bikin aku gabosen, cuma dia yang bikin aku semangat untuk dateng ke sekolah, cuma dia yang bikin aku ceria, cuma dia yang bisa bikin kata2 konyol bikin aku nagis saking lucunya, semua cuma bisa aku nikmatin dari jauh, jauuuuh. walau sebenernya dia deket tapi aku berasa jauuuuuuuuh banget sama dia. dia yang bantu aku kalau aku gabisa sama yang namanya "matematika", dia yang minta contekan nomor 5-6 ulangan IPS, dia yang gambar2 di buku aku dengan tulisan *o****n*, kalau dia ketawa, kayanya hati aku sakit kayanya kena silet sreeeeet, dia ketawa gada beban sedangkan hati aku ngebatin "haloooo ada aku loh disini" tapi dia gatau. aku sakit kalau aku sayang sama kamu, karena kamu gapernah sayang bahkan peduli sama aku (by rian). 5 bulan aku terus nyoba, temen2 sekitar aku selalu bilang "semangat ri!" tapi aku harus semangat sampai kapan? ada saatnya aku cape dan putus asa dengan keadaan ini ada juga yang bilang "kalo jodoh gakan kemana" iya itupun kalo jodoh, kalo engga? aku engga bisa dapet dia untuk selamalamanya. aku terus coba, coba, dan coba lagi (kaya kupon gosok "coba lagi") tapi hasilnya, mana? gak ada, sampe aku bangkotan nyoba dia gapernah bisa sayang sama aku. sebenernya aku gapernah minta banyak dari dia, aku cuma minta dia care sama aku. UDAH! cuma itu! itik buruk rupa kaya aku gakan bisa dapet pangeran seperti yang aku harep. 1 bulan, 2 bulan, 3 bulan, 4 bulan aku nyoba, aku mencoba optimis. dan 5 bulan aku ngarep, 5 bulan aku nunggu, 5 bulan aku nyoba, kayanya semua udah berahir, percuma aku ngejar dia toh dia gakan pernah nyambut aku. bahkan dia ga nyadar aku ada disini, care sama dia, mungkin ini yang terbaik. aku mencoba untuk menjauh dari kehidupan kamu walau aku tau aku gakan bisa nyoba walau samape kiamat 2012. gudbay principe, aku akan selalu sayang sama kamu walau kamu engga ;(("hati aku cuma buat hati kamu" meski aku gak mungkin dapetin kamu, cuma satu yang aku pinta jangan kamu hapus aku dari ingatan kamu. hati ini hingga ku tak mampu lagi, mungkinkah akan berakhir mungkinkah kan kau sadari betapa sakitnya raga ini betapa sakitnya hati ini menahan semua sikapmu padaku(by hesti)
puas kamu acuhkan aku? puas kamu sakitin aku? mungkin cuma kalau aku mati, kamu bakal berhenti, untuk sakitin aku. sampai kapan harus kaya gini? (by rian)

10 films with the biggest income during the year 2009

This is a list of 10 feature films that have contributed gross income (gross) during the year 2009 the largest of this. The data recorded includes the gross earnings throughout the world, the United States and Canada, the UK and Australia

"harry potter"

1. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince

Studio: Warner Bros.
Worldwide: $929,358,834
USA & Canada: $301,958,630
United Kingdom: $84,089,250
Australia: $34,999,141

2. Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs

Studio: 20th Century Fox
Worldwide: $883,718,521
USA & Canada: $196,573,705
United Kingdom: $56,859,040
Australia: $24,725,499
"ice age"

3. Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen

Studio: Paramount Pictures/DreamWorks
Worldwide: $834,969,807
USA & Canada: $402,111,870
United Kingdom: $44,383,558
Australia: $33,554,033

4. 2012

Studio: Columbia Pictures
Worldwide: $711,623,997
USA & Canada: $156,437,816
United Kingdom: $21,340,292

5. Up

Studio: Disney/Pixar
Worldwide: $683,004,164
USA & Canada: $293,004,164
United Kingdom: $47,933,744
Australia: $13,396,267

6. The Twilight Saga: New Moon

Studio: Summit Entertainment
Worldwide: $629,569,446
USA & Canada: $269,469,446
United Kingdom: $19,291,873
"twilight saga new moon"

7. Angels & Demons

Studio: Columbia Pictures
Worldwide: $485,930,816
USA & Canada: $133,375,846
United Kingdom: $30,726,140
Australia: $14,065,391
"night at museum"

8. The Hangover

Studio: Warner Bros.
Worldwide: $459,420,456
USA & Canada: $277,320,090
United Kingdom: $36,033,624
Australia: $17,934,378
"the hangover"

9. Night at the Museum: Battle of the Smithsonian

Studio: 20th Century Fox
Worldwide: $412,685,061
USA & Canada: $177,243,721
United Kingdom: $32,825,190
Australia: $14,037,398
"angel and demonds"

10. Star Trek

Studio: Paramount Pictures
Worldwide: $385,459,120
USA & Canada: $257,730,019
United Kingdom: $35,392,062
Australia: $12,650,526
"star trek"


Minggu, 13 Desember 2009

king kong!

Mengapa King Kong digunakan untuk nama Kera atau Monyet Raksasa?

Mengapa tidak digunakan nama Great Ape, King Monkey, Giant Ape,
Giant Mongkey atau yang lainnya?

Menurut ahli bahasa, kata King Kong berasal dari bahasa Inggris dan
bahasa Latin, yang artinya Raja Monyet. King artinya Raja (bahasa
Inggris) dan Kong artinya Monyet (bahasa Latin).

Berikut adalah kata-kata yang terkait dengan Kong:

1. Kong Kali Kong:
Artinya banyak Monyet! Bayangin, Monyet dikalikan dengan Monyet!

2. Kong Res (Kongres):
Artinya Monyet Ngumpul! Res singkatan dari Residu, sisa yang terkumpul.

3. Kong Kow:
Artinya, Monyet Gaul! Kow dari bahasa Mandarin non-formal yang artinya
main, bergaul atau ngerumpi.

4. Ngong Kong:
Artinya Monyet Jongkok! Ngong artinya duduk atau Jongkok dalam bahasa

5. Kong Guan:
Artinya Biskuit Monyet, atau Biskuit kesukaan Monyet!

6. Kong Lomerat:
Artinya Kumpulan besar Monyet! Glomerat artinya menggelinding menjadi
bola yang besar.

7. Kong Si (Kongsi):
Artinya Empat Monyet pengusaha! Si adalah bahasa Mandarin artinya

8. Cu Kong:
Monyet banyak duitnya! Cu artinya banyak duit menurut bahasa
Mandarin kuno yang sudah kadaluarsa.

9 . Eng Kong:
Artinya Mbahnya Monyet!

10. Sing Kong:
Akar umbi ngumpet dalam tanah, takut ama monyet!
Sing = singitan (bhs Jawa) = ngumpet.

11. Bo Kong:
Bagian tubuh belakang monyet di bagian bawah yang kelihatan
bengkak. Bo = aboh (bahasa Jawa) = bengkak.

13. Jerang Kong:
Kerangka monyet! Jerang = tulang belulang menurut bahasa antah

14. Bang Kong:
Monyet bangun kesiangan! Bang = singkatan dari bangun.

Sabtu, 12 Desember 2009

Harry Potter

Harry Potter
Complete set of the seven books of the "Harry Potter" series
Complete set of the seven books
of the "Harry Potter" series.
Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone
Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets
Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban
Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire
Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix
Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince
Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows
Author J. K. Rowling
Country United Kingdom
Language English
Genre Fantasy, Thriller, Young-adult fiction
Publisher Bloomsbury Publishing (UK)
Arthur A. Levine Books (US) Raincoast Books (CAN)
Published 30 June 1997 – 21 July 2007
Media type Print (hardcover and paperback)

Harry Potter is a series of seven fantasy novels written by British author J. K. Rowling. The books chronicle the adventures of the adolescent wizard Harry Potter and his best friends Ron Weasley and Hermione Granger, all of whom are students at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. The central story arc concerns Harry's struggle against the evil wizard Lord Voldemort, who killed Harry's parents in his quest to conquer the wizarding world and subjugate non-magical people (Muggles). Several successful derivative films, video games and other themed merchandise have been based upon the series.

Since the 1997 release of the first novel Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, which was retitled Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone in the United States, the books have gained immense popularity, critical acclaim and commercial success worldwide.[1] As of June 2008, the book series has sold more than 400 million copies and has been translated into 67 languages,[2][3] and the last four books have consecutively set records as the fastest-selling books in history.

English-language versions of the books are published by Bloomsbury in the United Kingdom, Scholastic Press in the United States, Allen & Unwin in Australia, and Raincoast Books in Canada. Thus far, the first six books have been made into a series of motion pictures by Warner Bros., with the sixth, Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, released on 15 July 2009.[4] The series also originated much tie-in merchandise, making the Harry Potter brand worth £15 billion.[5] The seventh book will be made into two movies released six months apart.


The novels revolve around Harry Potter, an orphan who discovers that he is a wizard at the age of eleven.[6] Wizard ability is inborn, but children are sent to wizarding school to learn the magical skills necessary to succeed in the wizarding world.[7] Harry is invited to attend the boarding school called Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. Each book chronicles one year in Harry's life, and most of the events take place at Hogwarts.[8] As he struggles through adolescence, Harry learns to overcome many magical, social and emotional hurdles.[9]

Wizarding world

Flashbacks throughout the series reveal that when Harry was a baby he witnessed his parents' murder by Lord Voldemort who was a dark wizard obsessed with racial purity.[10] For reasons not immediately revealed, Voldemort's attempt to kill Harry rebounds.[10] Voldemort is seemingly killed and Harry survives with only a lightning-shaped mark on his forehead as a memento of the attack.[10] As its inadvertent saviour from Voldemort's reign of terror, Harry becomes a living legend in the wizard world. However, at the orders of his patron, the wizard Albus Dumbledore, the orphaned Harry is placed in the home of his unpleasant Muggle (non-wizard) relatives, who keep him safe but completely ignorant of his true heritage.[10]

The first novel in the series, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, begins near Harry's 11th birthday. Half-giant Rubeus Hagrid reveals Harry's history and introduces him to the wizarding world.[10] The world J. K. Rowling created is both completely separate from and yet intimately connected to the real world. While the fantasy world of Narnia is an alternative universe and the Lord of the RingsMiddle-earth a mythic past, the Wizarding world of Harry Potter exists alongside that of the real world and contains magical elements similar to things in the non-magical world. Many of its institutions and locations are in places that are recognisable in the real world, such as London.[11] It comprises a fragmented collection of hidden streets, overlooked and ancient pubs, lonely country manors and secluded castles that remain invisible to the non-magical population of Muggles.[7]

With Hagrid's help, Harry prepares for and undertakes his first year of study at Hogwarts. As Harry begins to explore the magical world, the reader is introduced to many of the primary locations used throughout the series. Harry meets most of the main characters and gains his two closest friends: Ron Weasley, a fun-loving member of an ancient, large, happy, but hard-up wizarding family, and Hermione Granger, an obsessively bookish witch of non-magical parentage.[10][12] Harry also encounters the school's potions master, Severus Snape, who displays a deep and abiding dislike for him. The plot concludes with Harry's second confrontation with Lord Voldemort, who in his quest for immortality, yearns to gain the power of the Philosopher's Stone.[10]

The series continues with Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets describing Harry's second year at Hogwarts. He and his friends investigate a 50-year-old mystery that appears tied to recent sinister events at the school. The novel delves into the history of Hogwarts and a legend revolving around the "Chamber of Secrets", the underground lair of an ancient evil. For the first time, Harry realises that racial prejudice exists in the wizarding world, and he learns that Voldemort's reign of terror was often directed at wizards who were descended from Muggles. Harry is also shocked to learn that he can speak Parseltongue, the language of snakes; this rare ability is often equated with the dark arts. The novel ends after Harry saves the life of Ron's younger sister, Ginny Weasley, by destroying the diary in which Voldemort saved a piece of his soul (although Harry does not realize this until later in the series). The concept of storing part of one's soul inside of an object in order to prevent death is officially introduced in the sixth novel under the term "horcrux".[10]

The third novel, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, follows Harry in his third year of magical education. It is the only book in the series which does not feature Voldemort. Instead, Harry must deal with the knowledge that he has been targeted by Sirius Black, an escaped murderer believed to have assisted in the deaths of Harry's parents. As Harry struggles with his reaction to the dementors—dark creatures with the power to devour a human soul—which are ostensibly protecting the school, he reaches out to Remus Lupin, a Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher with a dark secret. Lupin teaches Harry defensive measures which are well above the level of magic generally shown by people his age. Harry learns that both Lupin and Black were close friends of his father and that Black was framed by their fourth friend, Peter Pettigrew.[13]

Voldemort returns

During Harry's fourth year of school, detailed in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Harry unwillingly participates in the Triwizard Tournament, a dangerous magical contest with the young foreign witches and wizards of visiting schools.[14] Harry attempts to discover who has forced him to compete in the tournament, and why.[15] An anxious Harry is guided through the tournament by Professor Alastor Moody, who is the Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher. The point at which the mystery is unravelled marks the series' shift from foreboding and uncertainty into open conflict as the children are growing up. The novel ends with the resurgence of Voldemort and the death of a student (Cedric Diggory)

In the fifth book, Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Harry must confront the newly resurfaced Voldemort. In response to Voldemort's reappearance, Dumbledore re-activates the Order of the Phoenix, a secret society which works from Sirius Black's dark family home to defeat Voldemort's minions and protect Voldemort's targets, including Harry. The Order includes many of the adults Harry trusts, including Remus Lupin, Sirius Black, and members of the Weasley family, but also some surprising members. Good and the dark characters are not so obvious. Despite Harry's description of Voldemort's recent activities, the Ministry of Magic and many others in the magical world refuse to believe that Voldemort has returned.[16]

In an attempt to counter and eventually discredit Dumbledore, who along with Harry is the most prominent voice in the Wizarding World attempting to warn of the Dark Lord's return, the Ministry appoints Dolores Umbridge as the High Inquisitor of Hogwarts. She transforms the school by a dictatorial regime and refuses to allow the students to learn ways to defend themselves against dark magic.[16] Harry forms a secret study group to teach his classmates the higher-level skills of Defense Against the Dark Arts that he has learned. The novel introduces Harry to Luna Lovegood, an airy young witch with a tendency to believe in oddball conspiracy theories. An important prophecy concerning Harry and Voldemort is revealed,[17] and Harry discovers that he and Voldemort have a painful connection, allowing Harry to view some of Voldemort's actions telepathically. In the novel's climax, Harry and his school friends face off against Voldemort's Death Eaters, who include the rich and arrogant Malfoy family. The timely arrival of members of the Order of the Phoenix saves the children's lives and allows many of the Death Eaters to be captured and imprisoned.[16]

In their sixth year, in Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, the protagonists have passed their OWL-levels and start on their specialist NEWT courses. Voldemort is leading another wizarding war, which has become so violent that even Muggles have noticed some of its effects. Although Harry and friends are relatively protected from that danger at Hogwarts, they are subject to all the difficulties of adolescence. At the beginning of the novel, he stumbles upon an old potions textbook filled with annotations and recommendations signed by a mysterious writer, the Half-Blood Prince.[18] While the shortcuts written in the book help Harry to excel at potions, he eventually learns to mistrust the anonymous writer's spells. Harry also takes private tutoring with Albus Dumbledore, who shows him various memories concerning the early life of Voldemort. These reveal that Voldemort's soul is splintered into a series of horcruxes, evil enchanted items hidden in various locations.[18] Harry's snobbish adversary, Draco Malfoy, attempts to attack Dumbledore, and the book culminates in the killing of Dumbledore by Professor Snape.

Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, the last book in the series, begins directly after the events of the sixth book. Voldemort has completed his ascension to power and gains control of the Ministry of Magic. Harry, Ron, and Hermione drop out of school so that they can find and destroy Voldemort's remaining horcruxes. To ensure their own safety as well as that of their family and friends, they are forced to isolate themselves. As they search for the horcruxes, the trio learn details about Dumbledore's past, as well as Snape's true motives.

The book culminates in the Battle of Hogwarts. Harry, Ron, and Hermione, in conjunction with members of the Order of the Phoenix and many of the teachers and students, defend Hogwarts from Voldemort, his Death Eaters, and various magical creatures. Several major characters are killed in the first wave of the battle and Voldemort resumes his intention to kill Harry. In an effort to save the survivors, Harry surrenders himself but the battle resumes as the parents of many Hogwarts students, residents of the nearby village Hogsmeade and other magical creatures arrive to reinforce the Order of the Phoenix. With the last horcrux destroyed, Harry finally faces Voldemort. Harry offers the Dark Lord a chance at remorse, but Voldemort ignores this and attempts to kill Harry one final time; resulting in Voldemort's death by his own hand. An epilogue describes the lives of the surviving characters and the effects on the wizarding world.

Supplementary works

Rowling has expanded the Harry Potter universe with several short books produced for various charities.[19][20] In 2001, she released Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them (a purported Hogwarts textbook) and Quidditch Through the Ages (a book Harry read for fun). Proceeds from the sale of these two books benefitted the charity Comic Relief.[21] In 2007, Rowling composed seven handwritten copies of The Tales of Beedle the Bard, a collection of fairy tales that is featured in the final novel, one of which was auctioned to raise money for the Children's High Level Group, a fund for mentally disabled children in poor countries. The book was published internationally on 4 December 2008.[22][23][24] Rowling also wrote an 800-word prequel in 2008 as part of a fundraiser organised by the bookseller Waterstones.[25]

Structure and genre

The Harry Potter novels fall within the genre of fantasy literature; however, in many respects they are also bildungsromans, or coming of age novels.[26] They can be considered part of the British children's boarding school genre, which includes Enid Blyton's Malory Towers, St. Clare's and the Naughtiest Girl series, and Frank Richards's Billy Bunter novels.[27] The Harry Potter books are predominantly set in Hogwarts, a fictional British boarding school for wizards, where the curriculum includes the use of magic.[27] In this sense they are "in a direct line of descent from Thomas Hughes's Tom Brown's School Days and other Victorian and Edwardian novels of British public school life".[28][29] They are also, in the words of Stephen King, "shrewd mystery tales",[30] and each book is constructed in the manner of a Sherlock Holmes-style mystery adventure. The stories are told from a third person limited point of view with very few exceptions (such as the opening chapters of Philosopher's Stone and Deathly Hallows and the first two chapters of Half-Blood Prince).

In the middle of each book, Harry struggles with the problems he encounters, and dealing with them often involves the need to violate some school rules—the penalties, in case of being caught out, being disciplinary punishments set out in the Hogwarts regulations (in which the Harry Potter books follow many precedents in the boarding school sub-genre).[27] However, the stories reach their climax in the summer term, near or just after final exams, when events escalate far beyond in-school squabbles and struggles, and Harry must confront either Voldemort or one of his followers, the Death Eaters, with the stakes a matter of life and death–a point underlined, as the series progresses, by one or more characters being killed in each of the final four books.[31][32] In the aftermath, he learns important lessons through exposition and discussions with head teacher and mentor Albus Dumbledore.

In the final novel, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Harry and his friends spend most of their time away from Hogwarts, and only return there to face Voldemort at the dénouement.[31] Completing the bildungsroman format, in this part Harry must grow up prematurely, losing the chance of a last year as a pupil in a school and needing to act as an adult, on whose decisions everybody else depends—the grown-ups included.[33]


According to Rowling, a major theme in the series is death: "My books are largely about death. They open with the death of Harry's parents. There is Voldemort's obsession with conquering death and his quest for immortality at any price, the goal of anyone with magic. I so understand why Voldemort wants to conquer death. We're all frightened of it."[34]

Academics and journalists have many other interpretations of themes in the books, some more complex than others, and some including political subtexts. Themes such as normality, oppression, survival, and overcoming imposing odds have all been considered as prevalent throughout the series.[35] Similarly, the theme of making one's way through adolescence and "going over one's most harrowing ordeals—and thus coming to terms with them" has also been considered.[36] Rowling has stated that the books comprise "a prolonged argument for tolerance, a prolonged plea for an end to bigotry" and that also pass on a message to "question authority and... not assume that the establishment or the press tells you all of the truth".[37][38]

While the books could be said to comprise many other themes, such as power/abuse of power, love, prejudice, and free choice, they are, as J.K. Rowling states, "deeply entrenched in the whole plot"; the writer prefers to let themes "grow organically", rather than sitting down and consciously attempting to impart such ideas to her readers.[39] Along the same lines is the ever-present theme of adolescence, in whose depiction Rowling has been purposeful in acknowledging her characters' sexualities and not leaving Harry, as she put it, "stuck in a state of permanent pre-pubescence".[40] Rowling said that, to her, the moral significance of the tales seems "blindingly obvious." The key for her was the choice between what is right and what is easy, "because that ... is how tyranny is started, with people being apathetic and taking the easy route and suddenly finding themselves in deep trouble."[41]

Origins and publishing history

In 1990, J. K. Rowling was on a crowded train from Manchester to London when the idea for Harry suddenly "fell into her head". Rowling gives an account of the experience on her website saying:[42]

"I had been writing almost continuously since the age of six but I had never been so excited about an idea before. I simply sat and thought, for four (delayed train) hours, and all the details bubbled up in my brain, and this scrawny, black-haired, bespectacled boy who did not know he was a wizard became more and more real to me."

Rowling completed Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone in 1995 and the manuscript was sent off to several prospective agents.[43] The second agent she tried, Christopher Little, offered to represent her and sent the manuscript to Bloomsbury. After eight other publishers had rejected Philosopher's Stone, Bloomsbury offered Rowling a £2,500 advance for its publication.[44][45] Despite Rowling's statement that she did not have any particular age group in mind when beginning to write the Harry Potter books, the publishers initially targeted children aged nine to eleven.[46] On the eve of publishing, Rowling was asked by her publishers to adopt a more gender-neutral pen name in order to appeal to the male members of this age group, fearing that they would not be interested in reading a novel they knew to be written by a woman. She elected to use J. K. Rowling (Joanne Kathleen Rowling), using her grandmother's name as her second name because she has no middle name.[45][47]

Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone was published by Bloomsbury, the publisher of all Harry Potter books in the United Kingdom, on 30 June 1997.[48] It was released in the United States on 1 September, 1998 by Scholastic—the American publisher of the books—as Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone,[49] after Rowling had received US$105,000 for the American rights—an unprecedented amount for a children's book by a then-unknown author.[50] Fearing that American readers would not associate the word "philosopher" with a magical theme (although the Philosopher's Stone is alchemy-related), Scholastic insisted that the book be given the title Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone for the American market.

The second book, Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets was originally published in the UK on 2 July 1998 and in the US on 2 June, 1999.[51][52] Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban was then published a year later in the UK on 8 July 1999 and in the US on 8 September 1999.[51][52] Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire was published on 8 July 2000 at the same time by Bloomsbury and Scholastic.[53] Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix is the longest book in the series at 766 pages in the UK version and 870 pages in the US version.[54] It was published worldwide in English on 21 June 2003.[55] Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince was published on 16 July 2005, and it sold 9 million copies in the first 24 hours of its worldwide release.[56][57] The seventh and final novel, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, was published 21 July 2007.[58] The book sold 11 million copies in the first 24 hours of release, breaking down to 2.7 million copies in the UK and 8.3 million in the US.[59]


The series has been translated into 67 languages,[2][60] placing Rowling among the most translated authors in history.[61] The first translation was into American English, as many words and concepts used by the characters in the novels may have been misleading to a young American audience.[62] Subsequently, the books have seen translations to diverse languages such as Ukrainian, Arabic, Urdu, Hindi, Bengali, Welsh, Afrikaans, Latvian and Vietnamese. The first volume has been translated into Latin and even Ancient Greek,[63] making it the longest published work in Ancient Greek since the novels of Heliodorus of Emesa in the 3rd century AD.[64]

Some of the translators hired to work on the books were quite well-known before their work on Harry Potter, such as Viktor Golyshev, who oversaw the Russian translation of the series' fifth book. The Turkish translation of books two to seven was undertaken by Sevin Okyay, a popular literary critic and cultural commentator.[65] For reasons of secrecy, translation can only start when the books are released in English; thus there is a lag of several months before the translations are available. This has led to more and more copies of the English editions being sold to impatient fans in non-English speaking countries. Such was the clamour to read the fifth book that its English language edition became the first English-language book ever to top the bestseller list in France.[66]

Completion of the series

In December 2005, Rowling stated on her web site, "2006 will be the year when I write the final book in the Harry Potter series."[67] Updates then followed in her online diary chronicling the progress of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, with the release date of 21 July 2007. The book itself was finished on 11 January 2007 in the Balmoral Hotel, Edinburgh, where she scrawled a message on the back of a bust of Hermes. It read: "J. K. Rowling finished writing Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows in this room (652) on 11 January 2007."[68]

Rowling herself has stated that the last chapter of the final book (in fact, the epilogue) was completed "in something like 1990".[69][70] In June 2006, Rowling, on an appearance on the British talk show Richard & Judy, announced that the chapter had been modified as one character "got a reprieve" and two others who previously survived the story had in fact been killed. On 28 March 2007, the cover art for the Bloomsbury Adult and Child versions and the Scholastic version were released.[71][72]


Cultural impact

Crowds wait outside a Borders store in Newark, Delaware for the midnight release of Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince

Fans of the series were so eager for the latest series release that bookstores around the world began holding events to coincide with the midnight release of the books, beginning with the 2000 publication of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. The events, commonly featuring mock sorting, games, face painting, and other live entertainment have achieved popularity with Potter fans and have been highly successful in attracting fans and selling books with nearly nine million of the 10.8 million initial print copies of Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince sold in the first 24 hours.[73][74] The series has also gathered adult fans, leading to the release of two editions of each Harry Potter book, identical in text but with one edition's cover artwork aimed at children and the other aimed at adults.[75] Besides meeting online through blogs, podcasts, and fansites, Harry Potter super-fans can also meet at Harry Potter symposia. The word Muggle has spread beyond its Harry Potter origins, used by many groups to indicate those who are not aware or are lacking in some skill. In 2003, Muggle, entered the Oxford English Dictionary with that definition.[76] The Harry Potter fandom has embraced podcasts as a regular, often weekly, insight to the latest discussion in the fandom. Both MuggleCast and PotterCast[77] have reached the top spot of iTunes podcast rankings and have been polled one of the top 50 favourite podcasts.[78]

Awards and honours

The Harry Potter series have been the recipients of a host of awards since the initial publication of Philosopher's Stone including four Whitaker Platinum Book Awards (all of which were awarded in 2001),[79] three Nestlé Smarties Book Prizes (1997–1999),[80] two Scottish Arts Council Book Awards (1999 and 2001),[81] the inaugural Whitbread children's book of the year award (1999),[82] the WHSmith book of the year (2006),[83] among others. In 2000, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban was nominated for Best Novel in the Hugo Awards while in 2001, Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire won said award.[84] Honours include a commendation for the Carnegie Medal (1997),[85] a short listing for the Guardian Children's Award (1998), and numerous listings on the notable books, editors' Choices, and best books lists of the American Library Association, The New York Times, Chicago Public Library, and Publishers Weekly.[86]

Commercial success

The popularity of the Harry Potter series has translated into substantial financial success for Rowling, her publishers, and other Harry Potter related license holders. This success has made Rowling the first and thus far only billionaire author.[87] The books have sold more than 400 million copies worldwide and have also given rise to the popular film adaptations produced by Warner Bros., all of which have been highly successful in their own right with the first, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, ranking number five on the inflation-unadjusted list of all-time highest grossing films and four others ranking in the top 15, while all six films released, so far, place in the top 25.[3][88] The films have in turn spawned eight video games and have led to the licensing of more than 400 additional Harry Potter products (including an iPod) that have, as of 2005, made the Harry Potter brand worth US$4 billion and J. K. Rowling worth $1 billion[89] making her, by some reports, richer than Queen Elizabeth II.[90][91] However, Rowling has stated that this is false.[92]

The great demand for Harry Potter books motivated the New York Times to create a separate bestseller list for children's literature in 2000, just before the release of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. By 24 June 2000, Rowling's novels had been on the list for 79 straight weeks; the first three novels were each on the hardcover bestseller list.[93] On 12 April 2007, Barnes & Noble declared that Deathly Hallows had broken its pre-order record, with more than 500,000 copies pre-ordered through its site.[94] For the release of Goblet of Fire, 9,000 FedEx trucks were used with no other purpose than to deliver the book.[95] Together, and Barnes & Noble pre-sold more than 700,000 copies of the book.[95] In the United States, the book's initial printing run was 3.8 million copies.[95] This record statistic was broken by Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, with 8.5 million, which was then shattered by Half-Blood Prince with 10.8 million copies.[96] 6.9 million copies of Prince were sold in the U.S. within the first 24 hours of its release; in the United Kingdom more than two million copies were sold on the first day.[97] The initial U.S. print run for Deathly Hallows was 12 million copies, and more than a million were pre-ordered through Amazon and Barnes & Noble.[98]

Criticism, praise, and controversy

Literary criticism

British editions of the seven Harry Potter books

Early in its history, Harry Potter received positive reviews. On publication, the first volume, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, attracted attention from the Scottish newspapers, such as The Scotsman, which said it had "all the makings of a classic",[99] and The Glasgow Herald, which called it "Magic stuff".[99] Soon the English newspapers joined in, with more than one comparing it to Roald Dahl's work: The Mail on Sunday rated it as "the most imaginative debut since Roald Dahl",[99] a view echoed by The Sunday Times ("comparisons to Dahl are, this time, justified"),[99] while The Guardian called it "a richly textured novel given lift-off by an inventive wit".[99]

By the time of the release of the fifth volume, Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, the books began to receive strong criticism from a number of literary scholars. Yale professor, literary scholar and critic Harold Bloom raised criticisms of the books' literary merits, saying, "Rowling's mind is so governed by clichés and dead metaphors that she has no other style of writing."[100] A. S. Byatt authored a New York Times op-ed article calling Rowling's universe a "secondary world, made up of patchworked derivative motifs from all sorts of children's literature ... written for people whose imaginative lives are confined to TV cartoons, and the exaggerated (more exciting, not threatening) mirror-worlds of soaps, reality TV and celebrity gossip".[101]

The critic Anthony Holden wrote in The Observer on his experience of judging Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban for the 1999 Whitbread Awards. His overall view of the series was negative—"the Potter saga was essentially patronising, conservative, highly derivative, dispiritingly nostalgic for a bygone Britain", and he speaks of "pedestrian, ungrammatical prose style".[102] Ursula Le Guin said, "I have no great opinion of it. When so many adult critics were carrying on about the 'incredible originality' of the first Harry Potter book, I read it to find out what the fuss was about, and remained somewhat puzzled; it seemed a lively kid's fantasy crossed with a "school novel", good fare for its age group, but stylistically ordinary, imaginatively derivative, and ethically rather mean-spirited." [103]

By contrast, author Fay Weldon, while admitting that the series is "not what the poets hoped for", nevertheless goes on to say, "but this is not poetry, it is readable, saleable, everyday, useful prose".[104] The literary critic A. N. Wilson praised the Harry Potter series in The Times, stating: "There are not many writers who have JK’s Dickensian ability to make us turn the pages, to weep—openly, with tears splashing—and a few pages later to laugh, at invariably good jokes ... We have lived through a decade in which we have followed the publication of the liveliest, funniest, scariest and most moving children’s stories ever written".[105] Charles Taylor of, who is primarily a movie critic,[106] took issue with Byatt's criticisms in particular. While he conceded that she may have "a valid cultural point—a teeny one—about the impulses that drive us to reassuring pop trash and away from the troubling complexities of art",[107] he rejected her claims that the series is lacking in serious literary merit and that it owes its success merely to the childhood reassurances it offers. Taylor stressed the progressively darker tone of the books, shown by the murder of a classmate and close friend and the psychological wounds and social isolation each causes. Taylor also argued that Philosopher's Stone, said to be the most lighthearted of the seven published books, disrupts the childhood reassurances that Byatt claims spur the series' success: the book opens with news of a double murder, for example.[107]

Stephen King called the series "a feat of which only a superior imagination is capable", and declared "Rowling's punning, one-eyebrow-cocked sense of humour" to be "remarkable". However, he wrote that despite the story being "a good one", he is "a little tired of discovering Harry at home with his horrible aunt and uncle", the formulaic beginning of all seven books.[30] King has also joked that "Rowling's never met an adverb she did not like!" He does however predict that Harry Potter "will indeed stand time's test and wind up on a shelf where only the best are kept; I think Harry will take his place with Alice, Huck, Frodo, and Dorothy and this is one series not just for the decade, but for the ages."[108]

Social impacts

Although Time magazine named Rowling as a runner-up for its 2007 Person of the Year award, noting the social, moral, and political inspiration she has given her fandom,[109] cultural comments on the series have been mixed. Washington Post book critic Ron Charles opined in July 2007 that the large numbers of adults reading the Potter series but few other books may represent a "bad case of cultural infantilism", and that the straightforward "good vs. evil" theme of the series is "childish". He also argued "through no fault of Rowling's", the cultural and marketing "hysteria" marked by the publication of the later books "trains children and adults to expect the roar of the coliseum, a mass-media experience that no other novel can possibly provide".[110]

Librarian Nancy Knapp pointed out the books' potential to improve literacy by motivating children to read much more than they would otherwise do [111] Agreeing about the motivating effects, Diane Penrod also praised the books' blending of simple entertainment with "the qualities of highbrow literary fiction", but expressed concern about the distracting effect of the prolific merchandising that accompanies the book launches.[112]

Jennifer Conn used Snape's and Quidditch coach Madam Hooch's teaching methods as examples of what to avoid and what to emulate in clinical teaching,[113] and Joyce Fields wrote that the books illustrate four of the five main topics in a typical first-year sociology class: "sociological concepts including culture, society, and socialisation; stratification and social inequality; social institutions; and social theory".[114]

Jenny Sawyer wrote in the 25 July 2007 Christian Science Monitor that the books represent a "disturbing trend in commercial storytelling and Western society" in that stories "moral center have all but vanished from much of today's pop culture ... after 10 years, 4,195 pages, and over 375 million copies, J. K. Rowling's towering achievement lacks the cornerstone of almost all great children's literature: the hero's moral journey". Harry Potter, Sawyer argues, neither faces a "moral struggle" nor undergoes any ethical growth, and is thus "no guide in circumstances in which right and wrong are anything less than black and white".[115] On the other hand Emily Griesinger described Harry's first passage through to Platform 9¾ as an application of faith and hope, and his encounter with the Sorting Hat as the first of many in which Harry is shaped by the choices he makes. She also noted the "deeper magic" by which the self-sacrifice of Harry's mother protects the boy throughout the series, and which the power-hungry Voldemort fails to understand.[116]

In a 8 November 2002 Slate Magazine article, Chris Suellentrop likened Potter to a "trust-fund kid whose success at school is largely attributable to the gifts his friends and relatives lavish upon him". Noting that in Rowling's fiction, magical ability potential is "something you are born to, not something you can achieve", Suellentrop wrote that Dumbledore's maxim that "It is our choices that show what we truly are, far more than our abilities" is hypocritical, as "the school that Dumbledore runs values native gifts above all else".[117] In an 12 August 2007 The New York Times review of The Deathly Hallows, however, Christopher Hitchens praised Rowling for "unmooring" her "English school story" from literary precedents "bound up with dreams of wealth and class and snobbery", arguing that she had instead created "a world of youthful democracy and diversity".[118]


The books have been the subject of a number of legal proceedings, stemming either from claims by American Christian groups that the magic in the books promotes witchcraft among children, or from various conflicts over copyright and trademark infringements. The popularity and high market value of the series has led Rowling, her publishers, and film distributor Warner Bros. to take legal measures to protect their copyright, which have included banning the sale of Harry Potter imitations, targeting the owners of websites over the "Harry Potter" domain name, and suing author Nancy Stouffer to counter her accusations that Rowling had plagiarised her work.[119][120][121] Various religious conservatives have claimed that the books promote witchcraft and are therefore unsuitable for children,[122] while a number of critics have criticised the books for promoting various political agendas.[123][124]

The books also aroused controversies in the literary and publishing worlds. In 1997 to 1998 Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone won almost all the UK awards judged by children, but none of the children's book awards judged by adults,[125] and Sandra Beckett suggested the reason was intellectual snobbery towards books that were popular among children.[126] In 1999 the winner of the Whitbread Book of the Year Award children's division was entered for the first time on the shortlist for the main award, and one judge threatened to resign if Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban was declared the overall winner; it finished second, very close behind the winner of the poetry prize, Seamus Heaney's translation of the Anglo-Saxon epic Beowulf.[126]

In 2000, shortly before publication of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, the previous three Harry Potter books topped the New York Times fiction best-seller list and a third of the entries were children's books. The newspaper created a new children's section cover splits children's sections, including both fiction and non-fiction, and initially counting only hardback sales. The move was supported by publishers and booksellers.[127] In 2004 New York Times further split the children's list, which was still dominated by Harry Potter books into sections for series and individual books, and removed the Harry Potter books from the section for individual books.[128] The split in 2000 attracted condemnation, praise and some comments that presented both benefits and disadvantages of the move.[129] Time suggested that, on the same principle, Billboard should have created a separate "mop-tops" list in 1964 when the Beatles held the top five places in its list, and Nielsen should have created a separate game-show list when Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? dominated the ratings.[130]


In 1998[131], Rowling sold the film rights of the first four Harry Potter books to Warner Bros. for a reported £1 million ($1,982,900).[132] Rowling demanded the principal cast be kept strictly British, nonetheless allowing for the inclusion of many Irish actors such as the late Richard Harris as Dumbledore, and for casting of French and Eastern European actors in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire where characters from the book are specified as such.[133] After many directors including Steven Spielberg, Terry Gilliam, Jonathan Demme, and Alan Parker were considered, Chris Columbus was appointed on 28 March, 2000 as director for Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (titled "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone" in the United States), with Warner Bros. citing his work on other family films such as Home Alone and Mrs. Doubtfire as influences for their decision.[134] After extensive casting,[135] filming began in October 2000 at Leavesden Film Studios and in London itself, with production ending in July 2001.[136] Philosopher's Stone was released on 14 November, 2001. Just three days after Philosopher's Stone's release, production for Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, also directed by Columbus began, finishing in summer 2002. The film was released on 15 November 2002.[137]

Chris Columbus declined to direct Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, only acting as producer. Mexican director Alfonso Cuarón took over the job, and after shooting in 2003, the film was released on 4 June 2004. Due to the fourth film beginning its production before the third's release, Mike Newell was chosen as the director for Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire,[138] released on 18 November 2005. Newell declined to direct the next movie, and British television director David Yates was chosen for Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, which began production on January 2006,[139] and was released on 11 July 2007. Yates also directed Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince,[140] which was released on 15 July 2009.[4][141] In March 2008, Warner Bros. announced that the final instalment of the series, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, would be filmed in two segments, with part one to be released in November 2010 and part two in July 2011. Production of both parts is underway, with Yates returning to direct.[142] The Harry Potter films have been top-rank box office hits, with five of the six on the list of 15 highest-grossing films worldwide.[143]

Opinions of the films are generally divided among fans, with one group preferring the more faithful approach of the first two films, and another group preferring the more stylised character-driven approach of the later films.[144] Rowling has been constantly supportive of the films,[145][146][147] and evaluated Order of the Phoenix as "the best one yet" in the series. She wrote on her web site of the changes in the book-to-film transition, "It is simply impossible to incorporate every one of my storylines into a film that has to be kept under four hours long. Obviously films have restrictions novels do not have, constraints of time and budget; I can create dazzling effects relying on nothing but the interaction of my own and my readers’ imaginations".[148]


The Harry Potter books have all been released on unabridged audiobook. The UK versions are read by Stephen Fry and the US versions are read by Jim Dale. Dale is also the narrator for the special features disc on the DVDs.

Theme Park

After the success of the films and books, in Fall 2009 Universal announced it would create "Harry Potter and the Forbidden Journey", which will be a hi-tech ride at the "Wizarding World of Harry Potter". The Wizarding World of Harry Potter would be a new theme park area opening in spring 2010 at Universal Orlando Resort, Florida.[149]

The entrance will be through a recreated version of the Hogsmeade station[150], leading to a recreated Hogwarts castle. Rides are set to include a twin high-speed rollercoaster named the 'Dragon Challenge' and a family roller coaster called 'Flight of the Hippogriff'. Every shop and restaurant will be themed - Honeydukes will sells chocolate frogs and 'Bertie Bott's Every-Flavour Beans,' Ollivander's will sell magic wands, Zonko's joke shop will sell Sneakoscopes, and the Three Broomsticks pours Butterbeer.[151]